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5G Wireless: A Comprehensive Introduction, 1st edition

BRAND: PEARSON

Publisher: Pearson (July 5, 2021) © 2021
William Stallings | eBook ISBN: 9780136767299
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Trong Mạng không dây 5G: Giới thiệu toàn diện, tác giả công nghệ thông tin nổi tiếng William Stallings trình bày lời giải thích toàn diện và thống nhất về các khía cạnh, ứng dụng và ý nghĩa chính của 5G. Giống như các văn bản đoạt giải thưởng khác của Stallings, hướng dẫn này được thiết kế để giúp sinh viên nhanh chóng tìm thấy thông tin và đạt được mức độ nắm vững cần thiết để nắm vững công nghệ mới quan trọng này. Các slide bài giảng PowerPoint sẽ được cung cấp cho giảng viên. Bảo hiểm bao gồm:

Bối cảnh và tổng quan: Lịch sử ngắn gọn về sự phát triển của mạng di động thông qua 4G, giới thiệu động lực, đặc điểm và công nghệ của 5G.
Các trường hợp ứng dụng và sử dụng: Một cuộc khảo sát rộng rãi về cả lĩnh vực ứng dụng chung và các trường hợp sử dụng cụ thể; bao gồm phạm vi bao gồm các tác động đối với điện toán IoT, đám mây và sương mù. 
Giao diện vô tuyến: Khảo sát chi tiết về tất cả các khía cạnh của truyền dẫn vô tuyến và giao diện không dây.
Lõi 5G: Khảo sát về kiến ​​trúc và triển khai lõi 5G. 
Bảo mật và quyền riêng tư của 5G: Yêu cầu, mối đe dọa, lỗ hổng, kiểm soát bảo mật, giải pháp dịch vụ và sản phẩm bảo mật cũng như quyền riêng tư.


Preface     xxiv

PART I:  OVERVIEW
Chapter 1:  Cellular Networks: Concepts and Evolution     2

1.1 Evolution of Cellular Networks     2

1.2 Cellular Network Concepts     4

    Cellular Organization     4

    Network System Elements     10

    Operation of Cellular Systems     11

1.3 First Generation (1G)     14

1.4 Second Generation (2G)     15

    Time-Division Multiple Access     16

    GSM Architecture     17

    Radio Link Aspects     20

1.5 Third Generation (3G)     20

    Code-Division Multiple Access     21

    3G Architecture     21

1.6 Fourth Generation (4G)     24

    E-UTRAN     26

    LTE-Advanced Transmission Characteristics     29

    Evolved Packet Core     33

1.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     34

    Key Terms     34

    Review Questions     35

Chapter 2:  5G Standards and Specifications     36

2.1 ITU-R and IMT-2020     37

    International Mobile Telecommunications     38

    Capabilities     38

    Usage Scenarios     41

    Use Cases     43

    Evaluation     46

2.2 ITU-T and IMT-2020     57

    Requirements     57

    Network Slicing     59

    Fixed Mobile Convergence     61

    IMT-2020 Core Network Framework     62

2.3 3GPP     65

    3GPP Releases     69

    Detailed Requirements     70

2.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     72

    Key Terms     72

    Review Questions     73

2.5 References and Documents     74

    References     74

    Documents     74

Chapter 3:  Overview of 5G Use Cases and Architecture     76

3.1 5G Use Cases     77

    ITU-R     77

    5G Americas     77

    NGMA Alliance     79

3.2 NGMN 5G Architecture Framework     81

    Layered Functionality     82

    Network Slicing     85

3.3 3GPP 5G Architecture     87

    5G Core Network Architecture     87

    Radio Access Network Architecture     94

    Session Establishment     97

3.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     98

    Key Terms     98

    Review Questions     99

3.5 References and Documents     99

    References     99

    Documents     100


PART II:  USE CASES AND APPLICATIONS
Chapter 4:  Enhanced Mobile Broadband     102

4.1 eMBB Deployment Scenarios     103

    Indoor Hotspot     104

    Dense Urban     105

    Rural     105

4.2 eMBB Performance Characteristics     105

    Data Rate Requirements     106

    Spectral Efficiency Requirements     107

    Latency Requirements     108

    Mobility Requirements     108

    System Requirements     109

4.3 Smart Office: An Indoor Hotspot Use Case     110

4.4 Dense Urban Information Society: A Dense Urban Use Case     111

4.5 Radiocommunication Systems Between Train and Trackside: A Rural eMBB Use Case     113

    Elements of RSTT     114

    Applications of RSTT     114

    Broadband Connectivity for Passengers     116

    Linear Cell Architecture     117

4.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     118

    Key Terms     118

    Review Questions     118

4.7 References and Documents     119

    References     119

    Documents     119

Chapter 5:  Massive Machine Type Communications     122

5.1 mMTC Performance Requirements     123

5.2 The Internet of Things     124

    The Scope of the Internet of Things     125

    Things on the Internet of Things     128

    Components of IoT-Enabled Things     128

    Constrained Devices     129

    IoT and Cloud Context     130

5.3 Relationship Between mMTC and the IoT     133

5.4 Relationship Between mMTC and NB-IoT and eMTC     135

    Comparison of NB-IoT and eMTC     135

    Low-Power Wide Area (LPWA)     136

5.5 Smart Agriculture     138

    Model of IoT Deployment     138

    Use Cases     140

    Precision Crop Management     145

    Network Performance Requirements     150

5.6 Smart Cities     150

    Smart City Use Cases     151

    ICT Architecture for Smart Cities     158

    Network Performance Requirements     160

5.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     162

    Key Terms     162

    Review Questions     163

5.8 References and Documents     163

    References     163

    Documents     164

Chapter 6:  Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications     166

6.1 URLLC Performance Requirements     167

    Latency     168

    Mobility     169

    Reliability     170

    NGMN Definitions     170

6.2 URLLC Use Cases in Emerging Mission-Critical Applications     171

    Industrial Automation     171

    Ground Vehicles, Drones, and Robots     171

    Tactile Interaction     171

    Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality     172

    Emergencies, Disasters, and Public Safety     176

    Urgent Healthcare     176

    Intelligent Transportation     177

6.3 URLLC Applications Based on Performance Requirements     178

    Higher Reliability and Lower Latency     179

    Higher Reliability, Higher Availability, and Lower Latency     180

    Very Low Latency     181

    Higher Accuracy Positioning     181

    Higher Availability     181

    Mission-Critical Services     182

6.4 Industry 4.0     182

    Factory Automation Architecture     183

    Application Areas     185

    Use Cases     187

    Performance Requirements     189

6.5 Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management     191

    UTM Architecture     192

    5G Performance Requirements for UTM     194

6.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     197

    Key Terms     197

    Review Questions     198

6.7 References and Documents     199

    References     199

    Documents     199


PART III:  5G NEXTGEN CORE NETWORK

Chapter 7:  Software-Defined Networking     202

7.1 Evolving Network Requirements     203

7.2 The SDN Approach     204

    Modern Network Requirements     204

    SDN Architecture     204

    Characteristics of Software-Defined Networking     207

7.3 SDN Data Plane     207

    Data Plane Functions     207

    Data Plane Protocols     209

7.4 OpenFlow     209

    Flow Table Structure     211

    Flow Table Pipeline     214

    The Use of Multiple Tables     216

    Group Table     217

    OpenFlow Protocol     217

7.5 SDN Control Plane     218

    Control Plane Functions     218

    Southbound Interface     220

    Northbound Interface     220

    Eastbound Interface     223

    Westbound Interface     224

7.6 SDN Application Plane     225

    Application Plane Architecture     225

    Northbound Interface     226

    Network Services Abstraction Layer     226

    Network Applications     226

    User Interface     230

7.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     230

    Key Terms     230

    Review Questions     231

7.8 References and Documents     231

    References     231

    Documents     232

Chapter 8:  Network Functions Virtualization     234

8.1 Background and Motivation for NFV     235

8.2 Virtual Machines and Containers     236

    Hypervisor     236

    Architectural Approaches     238

    Container Virtualization     241

8.3 NFV Concepts     242

    Simple Example of the Use of NFV     245

    NFV Principles     246

    High-Level NFV Framework     246

8.4 NFV Benefits and Requirements     248

    NFV Benefits     248

    NFV Requirements     249

8.5 NFV Reference Architecture     250

    NFV Management and Orchestration     251

    Reference Points     251

8.6 NFV Infrastructure     252

    Container Interface     253

    Deployment of NFVI Containers     256

    Logical Structure of NFVI Domains     257

    Compute Domain     258

    Hypervisor Domain     260

    Infrastructure Network Domain     261

8.7 Virtualized Network Functions     263

    VNF Interfaces     263

    VNFC-to-VNFC Communication     264

    VNF Scaling     266

8.8 SDN and NFV     267

8.9 Key Terms and Review Questions     269

    Key Terms     269

    Review Questions     270

8.10 References and Documents     271

    References     271

    Documents     271

Chapter 9:  Core Network Functionality, QoS, and Network Slicing     272

9.1 Core Network Requirements     273

    Network Operational Requirements     273

    Basic Network Requirements     275

9.2 Core Network Functional Architecture     279

    Tunneling     281

    PDU Session Establishment     283

    Policy Control Function     287

9.3 Quality of Service     291

    QoS Capabilities     291

    QoS Architectural Framework     294

    QoS Classification, Marking, and Differentiation     297

    3GPP QoS Architecture     298

    QoS Parameters     299

    QoS Characteristics     301

    Standardized 5QI-to-QoS Characteristic Mapping     303

9.4 Network Slicing     307

    Network Slicing Concepts     308

    Requirements for Network Slicing     310

    Identifying and Selecting a Network Slice     312

    Functional Aspects of Network Slicing     313

    Generic Slice Template     314

9.5 SDN and NFV Support for 5G     315

9.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     319

    Key Terms     319

    Review Questions     319

9.7 References and Documents     320

    References     320

    Documents     320

Chapter 10:  Multi-Access Edge Computing     322

10.1 MEC and 5G     323

10.2 MEC Architectural Concepts     324

10.3 ETSI MEC Architecture     327

    Design Principles     328

    MEC System Reference Architecture     329

    Related Elements     332

10.4 MEC in NFV     333

    MEC Components Implemented as VNFs     333

    MEC Components Replaced by NFV Components     335

    MEC System-Level Components     335

10.5 MEC Support for Network Slicing     335

10.6 MEC Use Cases     336

    Consumer-Oriented Services     337

    Operator and Third-Party Services     342

    Network Performance and QoS Improvements     344

10.7 3GPP Architecture for Enabling Edge Applications     349

    EDGEAPP Functional Architecture     350

    Synergized Mobile Edge Cloud Architecture     352

10.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     353

    Key Terms     353

    Review Questions     353

10.9 References and Documents     354

    References     354

    Documents     355


PART IV:  5G NR AIR INTERFACE AND RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

Chapter 11:  Wireless Transmission     356

11.1 Channel Capacity     357

    Nyquist Bandwidth     357

    Shannon Capacity Formula     358

11.2 Line-of-Sight Transmission     361

    Refraction     362

    Optical and Radio Line of Sight     363

11.3 Line-of-Sight Transmission Impairments     364

    Attenuation     364

    Free Space Loss     365

    Path Loss Exponent in Practical Cellular Systems     368

    Noise     369

    The Expression Eb/N0     372

    Atmospheric Absorption     374

    Multipath     375

    Refraction     376

11.4 Fading in the Mobile Environment     376

    Multipath Propagation     376

    The Effects of Multipath Propagation     377

    Types of Fading     378

    The Fading Channel     379

11.5 Millimeter Wave Transmission for 5G     381

    Propagation Impairments     381

    Implications for 5G     385

11.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     387

    Key Terms     387

    Review Questions     388

11.7 References     389

ANNEX 11A: Decibels and Signal Strength     389

Chapter 12:  Antennas     394

12.1 Channel Correction Mechanisms     394

    Adaptive Equalization     395

    Diversity Techniques     396

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding     398

    Forward Error Correction     398

12.2 Introduction to Antennas     399

    Radiation Patterns     399

    Antenna Types     401

    Antenna Gain     406

12.3 Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output (MIMO) Antennas     407

    MIMO Principles     408

    Multiple-User MIMO     410

12.4 Advanced Cellular Antennas     411

    Evolution of Cellular Antennas     411

    Beamforming     412

    Active Antenna Systems     416

    Massive MIMO     417

12.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     420

    Key Terms     420

    Review Questions     421

12.6 References     422

Chapter 13:  Air Interface Physical Layer     424

13.1 Modulation Schemes     424

    Modulation     425

    Amplitude-Shift Keying     425

    Frequency-Shift Keying     426

    Phase-Shift Keying     426

    Quadrature Amplitude Modulation     433

    pi/2-BPSK     437

13.2 OFDM, OFDMA, and SC-FDMA     438

    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing     438

    OFDM Implementation     441

    Difficulties of OFDM     444

    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access     445

    Single-Carrier FDMA     446

13.3 Waveforms and Numerologies     448

    Numerology     448

    CP-OFDM     449

    DFT-S-OFDM     450

13.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     451

    Key Terms     451

    Review Questions     452

13.5 References and Documents     453

    References     453

    Documents     453

ANNEX 13A: Multiplexing and Multiple Access     453

    Multiplexing     453

    Multiple Access     455

Chapter 14:  Air Interface Channel Coding     456

14.1 Transmission Errors     457

    Error Burst     457

    Data Transmission Channels     458

14.2 Forward Error Correction     460

    Block Error Correction     460

    Hamming Distance     462

14.3 Parity-Check Matrix Codes     466

    Encoding     469

    Error Detection     470

    Error Correction     470

14.4 Low-Density Parity-Check Codes     471

    Code Construction     472

    Error Correction     473

    Encoding     476

14.5 Polar Coding     476

    Polar Encoder     477

    Synthetic Channels     479

    Decoding     483

14.6 3GPP Channel Coding Specification     484

    Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check Codes     485

    Polar Coding with CRC     486

14.7 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request     488

14.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     490

    Key Terms     490

    Review Questions     490

14.9 References and Documents     491

    References     491

    Documents     492

Chapter 15:  5G Radio Access Network     494

15.1 Overall RAN Architecture     494

15.2 RAN–Core Functional Split     499

    RAN Functional Areas     500

    Core Functional Areas     501

15.3 RAN Channel Structure     502

    Logical Channel     503

    Transport Channels     503

    Physical Channels     504

15.4 RAN Protocol Architecture     505

    Air Interface Protocol Architecture     505

    Channel Structure     508

    RAN–Core Network Interface Protocol Architecture     509

    Xn Interface Protocol Architecture     511

15.5 NG RAN Transport Network     512

15.6 Integrated Access and Backhaul     517

    IAB Architecture     519

    Parent/Child Relationship     520

    IAB Protocol Architecture     520

15.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     523

    Key Terms     523

    Review Questions     524

15.8 References and Documents     525

    References     525

    Documents     525


PART V:  APPENDIXES
Appendix A:  Review Questions and Solutions     528
Appendix B:  Glossary     594
Appendix C:  Acronyms     604
Index     608

TỔNG QUAN SÁCH

Trong Mạng không dây 5G: Giới thiệu toàn diện, tác giả công nghệ thông tin nổi tiếng William Stallings trình bày lời giải thích toàn diện và thống nhất về các khía cạnh, ứng dụng và ý nghĩa chính của 5G. Giống như các văn bản đoạt giải thưởng khác của Stallings, hướng dẫn này được thiết kế để giúp sinh viên nhanh chóng tìm thấy thông tin và đạt được mức độ nắm vững cần thiết để nắm vững công nghệ mới quan trọng này. Các slide bài giảng PowerPoint sẽ được cung cấp cho giảng viên. Bảo hiểm bao gồm:

Bối cảnh và tổng quan: Lịch sử ngắn gọn về sự phát triển của mạng di động thông qua 4G, giới thiệu động lực, đặc điểm và công nghệ của 5G.
Các trường hợp ứng dụng và sử dụng: Một cuộc khảo sát rộng rãi về cả lĩnh vực ứng dụng chung và các trường hợp sử dụng cụ thể; bao gồm phạm vi bao gồm các tác động đối với điện toán IoT, đám mây và sương mù. 
Giao diện vô tuyến: Khảo sát chi tiết về tất cả các khía cạnh của truyền dẫn vô tuyến và giao diện không dây.
Lõi 5G: Khảo sát về kiến ​​trúc và triển khai lõi 5G. 
Bảo mật và quyền riêng tư của 5G: Yêu cầu, mối đe dọa, lỗ hổng, kiểm soát bảo mật, giải pháp dịch vụ và sản phẩm bảo mật cũng như quyền riêng tư.

MỤC LỤC

Preface     xxiv

PART I:  OVERVIEW
Chapter 1:  Cellular Networks: Concepts and Evolution     2

1.1 Evolution of Cellular Networks     2

1.2 Cellular Network Concepts     4

    Cellular Organization     4

    Network System Elements     10

    Operation of Cellular Systems     11

1.3 First Generation (1G)     14

1.4 Second Generation (2G)     15

    Time-Division Multiple Access     16

    GSM Architecture     17

    Radio Link Aspects     20

1.5 Third Generation (3G)     20

    Code-Division Multiple Access     21

    3G Architecture     21

1.6 Fourth Generation (4G)     24

    E-UTRAN     26

    LTE-Advanced Transmission Characteristics     29

    Evolved Packet Core     33

1.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     34

    Key Terms     34

    Review Questions     35

Chapter 2:  5G Standards and Specifications     36

2.1 ITU-R and IMT-2020     37

    International Mobile Telecommunications     38

    Capabilities     38

    Usage Scenarios     41

    Use Cases     43

    Evaluation     46

2.2 ITU-T and IMT-2020     57

    Requirements     57

    Network Slicing     59

    Fixed Mobile Convergence     61

    IMT-2020 Core Network Framework     62

2.3 3GPP     65

    3GPP Releases     69

    Detailed Requirements     70

2.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     72

    Key Terms     72

    Review Questions     73

2.5 References and Documents     74

    References     74

    Documents     74

Chapter 3:  Overview of 5G Use Cases and Architecture     76

3.1 5G Use Cases     77

    ITU-R     77

    5G Americas     77

    NGMA Alliance     79

3.2 NGMN 5G Architecture Framework     81

    Layered Functionality     82

    Network Slicing     85

3.3 3GPP 5G Architecture     87

    5G Core Network Architecture     87

    Radio Access Network Architecture     94

    Session Establishment     97

3.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     98

    Key Terms     98

    Review Questions     99

3.5 References and Documents     99

    References     99

    Documents     100


PART II:  USE CASES AND APPLICATIONS
Chapter 4:  Enhanced Mobile Broadband     102

4.1 eMBB Deployment Scenarios     103

    Indoor Hotspot     104

    Dense Urban     105

    Rural     105

4.2 eMBB Performance Characteristics     105

    Data Rate Requirements     106

    Spectral Efficiency Requirements     107

    Latency Requirements     108

    Mobility Requirements     108

    System Requirements     109

4.3 Smart Office: An Indoor Hotspot Use Case     110

4.4 Dense Urban Information Society: A Dense Urban Use Case     111

4.5 Radiocommunication Systems Between Train and Trackside: A Rural eMBB Use Case     113

    Elements of RSTT     114

    Applications of RSTT     114

    Broadband Connectivity for Passengers     116

    Linear Cell Architecture     117

4.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     118

    Key Terms     118

    Review Questions     118

4.7 References and Documents     119

    References     119

    Documents     119

Chapter 5:  Massive Machine Type Communications     122

5.1 mMTC Performance Requirements     123

5.2 The Internet of Things     124

    The Scope of the Internet of Things     125

    Things on the Internet of Things     128

    Components of IoT-Enabled Things     128

    Constrained Devices     129

    IoT and Cloud Context     130

5.3 Relationship Between mMTC and the IoT     133

5.4 Relationship Between mMTC and NB-IoT and eMTC     135

    Comparison of NB-IoT and eMTC     135

    Low-Power Wide Area (LPWA)     136

5.5 Smart Agriculture     138

    Model of IoT Deployment     138

    Use Cases     140

    Precision Crop Management     145

    Network Performance Requirements     150

5.6 Smart Cities     150

    Smart City Use Cases     151

    ICT Architecture for Smart Cities     158

    Network Performance Requirements     160

5.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     162

    Key Terms     162

    Review Questions     163

5.8 References and Documents     163

    References     163

    Documents     164

Chapter 6:  Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications     166

6.1 URLLC Performance Requirements     167

    Latency     168

    Mobility     169

    Reliability     170

    NGMN Definitions     170

6.2 URLLC Use Cases in Emerging Mission-Critical Applications     171

    Industrial Automation     171

    Ground Vehicles, Drones, and Robots     171

    Tactile Interaction     171

    Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality     172

    Emergencies, Disasters, and Public Safety     176

    Urgent Healthcare     176

    Intelligent Transportation     177

6.3 URLLC Applications Based on Performance Requirements     178

    Higher Reliability and Lower Latency     179

    Higher Reliability, Higher Availability, and Lower Latency     180

    Very Low Latency     181

    Higher Accuracy Positioning     181

    Higher Availability     181

    Mission-Critical Services     182

6.4 Industry 4.0     182

    Factory Automation Architecture     183

    Application Areas     185

    Use Cases     187

    Performance Requirements     189

6.5 Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management     191

    UTM Architecture     192

    5G Performance Requirements for UTM     194

6.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     197

    Key Terms     197

    Review Questions     198

6.7 References and Documents     199

    References     199

    Documents     199


PART III:  5G NEXTGEN CORE NETWORK

Chapter 7:  Software-Defined Networking     202

7.1 Evolving Network Requirements     203

7.2 The SDN Approach     204

    Modern Network Requirements     204

    SDN Architecture     204

    Characteristics of Software-Defined Networking     207

7.3 SDN Data Plane     207

    Data Plane Functions     207

    Data Plane Protocols     209

7.4 OpenFlow     209

    Flow Table Structure     211

    Flow Table Pipeline     214

    The Use of Multiple Tables     216

    Group Table     217

    OpenFlow Protocol     217

7.5 SDN Control Plane     218

    Control Plane Functions     218

    Southbound Interface     220

    Northbound Interface     220

    Eastbound Interface     223

    Westbound Interface     224

7.6 SDN Application Plane     225

    Application Plane Architecture     225

    Northbound Interface     226

    Network Services Abstraction Layer     226

    Network Applications     226

    User Interface     230

7.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     230

    Key Terms     230

    Review Questions     231

7.8 References and Documents     231

    References     231

    Documents     232

Chapter 8:  Network Functions Virtualization     234

8.1 Background and Motivation for NFV     235

8.2 Virtual Machines and Containers     236

    Hypervisor     236

    Architectural Approaches     238

    Container Virtualization     241

8.3 NFV Concepts     242

    Simple Example of the Use of NFV     245

    NFV Principles     246

    High-Level NFV Framework     246

8.4 NFV Benefits and Requirements     248

    NFV Benefits     248

    NFV Requirements     249

8.5 NFV Reference Architecture     250

    NFV Management and Orchestration     251

    Reference Points     251

8.6 NFV Infrastructure     252

    Container Interface     253

    Deployment of NFVI Containers     256

    Logical Structure of NFVI Domains     257

    Compute Domain     258

    Hypervisor Domain     260

    Infrastructure Network Domain     261

8.7 Virtualized Network Functions     263

    VNF Interfaces     263

    VNFC-to-VNFC Communication     264

    VNF Scaling     266

8.8 SDN and NFV     267

8.9 Key Terms and Review Questions     269

    Key Terms     269

    Review Questions     270

8.10 References and Documents     271

    References     271

    Documents     271

Chapter 9:  Core Network Functionality, QoS, and Network Slicing     272

9.1 Core Network Requirements     273

    Network Operational Requirements     273

    Basic Network Requirements     275

9.2 Core Network Functional Architecture     279

    Tunneling     281

    PDU Session Establishment     283

    Policy Control Function     287

9.3 Quality of Service     291

    QoS Capabilities     291

    QoS Architectural Framework     294

    QoS Classification, Marking, and Differentiation     297

    3GPP QoS Architecture     298

    QoS Parameters     299

    QoS Characteristics     301

    Standardized 5QI-to-QoS Characteristic Mapping     303

9.4 Network Slicing     307

    Network Slicing Concepts     308

    Requirements for Network Slicing     310

    Identifying and Selecting a Network Slice     312

    Functional Aspects of Network Slicing     313

    Generic Slice Template     314

9.5 SDN and NFV Support for 5G     315

9.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     319

    Key Terms     319

    Review Questions     319

9.7 References and Documents     320

    References     320

    Documents     320

Chapter 10:  Multi-Access Edge Computing     322

10.1 MEC and 5G     323

10.2 MEC Architectural Concepts     324

10.3 ETSI MEC Architecture     327

    Design Principles     328

    MEC System Reference Architecture     329

    Related Elements     332

10.4 MEC in NFV     333

    MEC Components Implemented as VNFs     333

    MEC Components Replaced by NFV Components     335

    MEC System-Level Components     335

10.5 MEC Support for Network Slicing     335

10.6 MEC Use Cases     336

    Consumer-Oriented Services     337

    Operator and Third-Party Services     342

    Network Performance and QoS Improvements     344

10.7 3GPP Architecture for Enabling Edge Applications     349

    EDGEAPP Functional Architecture     350

    Synergized Mobile Edge Cloud Architecture     352

10.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     353

    Key Terms     353

    Review Questions     353

10.9 References and Documents     354

    References     354

    Documents     355


PART IV:  5G NR AIR INTERFACE AND RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

Chapter 11:  Wireless Transmission     356

11.1 Channel Capacity     357

    Nyquist Bandwidth     357

    Shannon Capacity Formula     358

11.2 Line-of-Sight Transmission     361

    Refraction     362

    Optical and Radio Line of Sight     363

11.3 Line-of-Sight Transmission Impairments     364

    Attenuation     364

    Free Space Loss     365

    Path Loss Exponent in Practical Cellular Systems     368

    Noise     369

    The Expression Eb/N0     372

    Atmospheric Absorption     374

    Multipath     375

    Refraction     376

11.4 Fading in the Mobile Environment     376

    Multipath Propagation     376

    The Effects of Multipath Propagation     377

    Types of Fading     378

    The Fading Channel     379

11.5 Millimeter Wave Transmission for 5G     381

    Propagation Impairments     381

    Implications for 5G     385

11.6 Key Terms and Review Questions     387

    Key Terms     387

    Review Questions     388

11.7 References     389

ANNEX 11A: Decibels and Signal Strength     389

Chapter 12:  Antennas     394

12.1 Channel Correction Mechanisms     394

    Adaptive Equalization     395

    Diversity Techniques     396

    Adaptive Modulation and Coding     398

    Forward Error Correction     398

12.2 Introduction to Antennas     399

    Radiation Patterns     399

    Antenna Types     401

    Antenna Gain     406

12.3 Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output (MIMO) Antennas     407

    MIMO Principles     408

    Multiple-User MIMO     410

12.4 Advanced Cellular Antennas     411

    Evolution of Cellular Antennas     411

    Beamforming     412

    Active Antenna Systems     416

    Massive MIMO     417

12.5 Key Terms and Review Questions     420

    Key Terms     420

    Review Questions     421

12.6 References     422

Chapter 13:  Air Interface Physical Layer     424

13.1 Modulation Schemes     424

    Modulation     425

    Amplitude-Shift Keying     425

    Frequency-Shift Keying     426

    Phase-Shift Keying     426

    Quadrature Amplitude Modulation     433

    pi/2-BPSK     437

13.2 OFDM, OFDMA, and SC-FDMA     438

    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing     438

    OFDM Implementation     441

    Difficulties of OFDM     444

    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access     445

    Single-Carrier FDMA     446

13.3 Waveforms and Numerologies     448

    Numerology     448

    CP-OFDM     449

    DFT-S-OFDM     450

13.4 Key Terms and Review Questions     451

    Key Terms     451

    Review Questions     452

13.5 References and Documents     453

    References     453

    Documents     453

ANNEX 13A: Multiplexing and Multiple Access     453

    Multiplexing     453

    Multiple Access     455

Chapter 14:  Air Interface Channel Coding     456

14.1 Transmission Errors     457

    Error Burst     457

    Data Transmission Channels     458

14.2 Forward Error Correction     460

    Block Error Correction     460

    Hamming Distance     462

14.3 Parity-Check Matrix Codes     466

    Encoding     469

    Error Detection     470

    Error Correction     470

14.4 Low-Density Parity-Check Codes     471

    Code Construction     472

    Error Correction     473

    Encoding     476

14.5 Polar Coding     476

    Polar Encoder     477

    Synthetic Channels     479

    Decoding     483

14.6 3GPP Channel Coding Specification     484

    Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check Codes     485

    Polar Coding with CRC     486

14.7 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request     488

14.8 Key Terms and Review Questions     490

    Key Terms     490

    Review Questions     490

14.9 References and Documents     491

    References     491

    Documents     492

Chapter 15:  5G Radio Access Network     494

15.1 Overall RAN Architecture     494

15.2 RAN–Core Functional Split     499

    RAN Functional Areas     500

    Core Functional Areas     501

15.3 RAN Channel Structure     502

    Logical Channel     503

    Transport Channels     503

    Physical Channels     504

15.4 RAN Protocol Architecture     505

    Air Interface Protocol Architecture     505

    Channel Structure     508

    RAN–Core Network Interface Protocol Architecture     509

    Xn Interface Protocol Architecture     511

15.5 NG RAN Transport Network     512

15.6 Integrated Access and Backhaul     517

    IAB Architecture     519

    Parent/Child Relationship     520

    IAB Protocol Architecture     520

15.7 Key Terms and Review Questions     523

    Key Terms     523

    Review Questions     524

15.8 References and Documents     525

    References     525

    Documents     525


PART V:  APPENDIXES
Appendix A:  Review Questions and Solutions     528
Appendix B:  Glossary     594
Appendix C:  Acronyms     604
Index     608

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